The role of the Brazilian Olympic Committee (COB) as per World Anti-Doping Code is to provide guidance and education to athletes to prevent doping in sports. In this sense, the entity implemented the Anti-Doping Education and Prevention area, led by the manager Christian Trajano, physician and former technical director of the Brazilian Authority on Doping Control (ABCD). With the development and implementation of the Anti-Doping Education and Prevention Program in the Brazilian Olympic sport, the COB supports the actions of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and ABCD.

Among the purposes of the area is the integration of anti-doping education and prevention actions to Brazilian Coaches Academy, a branch of the Brazilian Olympic Institute, the education arm of the COB, as well as Transforma, a program to promote the Olympic Values to the youth. The protection of the Olympic spirit is the driving force behind this initiative of the COB and is aligned with the values of the entity: meritocracy, transparency, and austerity.

The department plans the development of an application for mobile learning, integrated to an e-learning platform, in addition to face-to-face actions at the Time Brasil Training Center, Maria Lenk Water Park, which includes lectures and educational seminars for members of Team Brazil.

In Brazil, the entity that coordinate doping control tests that conduct the results management of an adverse analytical finding, and forward to the Anti-Doping Court is ABCD. The COB carries out a warning to our Olympic athletes about the dangers of using prohibited substances. With increasing concern over this issue in recent years, the Brazilian Olympic Committee has sought to develop mechanisms to enhance athletes' knowledge.

Do you want to get in touch with the Anti-Doping Education and Prevention area?

Tels .: +55 21 3433-5901 (or 5902)

CLICK and check the COB documents on the subject.
Or go to the WADA website and see the World Anti-Doping Code.

Do you want to contact the area of Doping Prevention and Education?
WADA’s anti-doping eLearning platform (ADeL)

The antidoping



Prohibited List

Doping Control

World Anti-Doping Code

Consequences of Doping


Prohibited List - Cannabinoid

All natural and synthetic cannabinoids are prohibited except for cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabis, hashish and marijuana are prohibited.  Products, including foods and drinks, containing cannabinoids, are also prohibited. All synthetic cannabinoids that mimic the effects of THC are prohibited.

CBD is not prohibited; however, athletes should be aware that some CBD oils and tinctures extracted from cannabis plants, may also contain THC and other cannabinoids that could result in a positive test for a prohibited cannabinoid.

Antidoping Rules Violation

Strict Liability

Prohibited List

Platelet derived preparations (PRP) are not prohibited.  Despite the presence of some growth factors, platelet-derived preparations were removed from the Prohibited List as recent studies on PRP do not demonstrate any performance enhancement beyond a potential therapeutic effect.

Note that individual growth factors from any other source remain prohibited under S.2.

The status of plasmapheresis is different for plasma donors and recipients:

  • For the plasma donor, plasmapheresis is prohibited under section M1.1 because the donor’s own red blood cells (and other blood components) are being reintroduced back into their own circulatory system after the plasma or blood components have been separated outside of the person’s body. 
  • For the plasma recipient, who is receiving plasma from a different donor, plasmapheresis is not prohibited under M1.1 or M1.3 as the patient receives only plasma, but not whole blood or red blood cells.  For the plasma recipient, plasmapheresis would only be prohibited under M2.2 if it is not legitimately received in the course of hospital treatment when the volume is more than 100 mL per 12 hour period.

Intravenous laser therapy is prohibited under M1.3 as defined by “Any form of intravascular manipulation of blood…”

MHA is known by many different names, including, but not limited to, dimethylamylamine, 1,3-dimethylamylamine, dimethylpentylamine, methylhexamine, methylhexanamine, 1,3-dimethylpentylamine. It is prohibited In-Competition only as a specified stimulant under Section 6.b.

MHA is a stimulant that was sold as a medicine up to the early 1970s, but is no longer used for medical treatment. MHA is currently included as a constituent of some dietary supplements sold today, including via the Internet.

Prohibited List - Dietary and Nutritional Supplements

Tramadol Ban - UCI

Tramadol is a painkiller in the synthetic opioid category. It is frequently used by cyclists, as shown by the findings of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)'s monitoring programme since 2012. In particular in the 2017 survey:

4.4% of in-competition tests on cyclists showed the use of tramadol;

68% of urine samples – taken from across 35 Olympic sports – containing tramadol were from cyclists.

The use of tramadol can have two types of side-effect: nausea, drowsiness and loss of concentration (increasing the risk of race crashes), and gradual dependence on the substance with a risk of developing an addiction. Tramadol is available on prescription, but is also freely available on the internet, which increases the risk of uncontrolled self-medication.

In light of the risks associated with its use in competitive cycling, and in accordance with the UCI Management Committee decision of June 2018, the UCI Medical Regulations will ban in-competition use of tramadol. The regulations will be published on the UCI website shortly.

The ban is aimed at preserving the rider's health and safety in light of the side-effects of tramadol, across all disciplines and categories.

As of 1 March 2019, any rider taking part in an event registered on a national or international calendar may be selected to provide a blood sample for tramadol testing.

Testing will take place in-competition, in particular but not only at the end of the races.

The sample collection is not invasive and will be conducted using a sampling kit to collect a limited amount of blood from the rider's fingertip.

This will be managed by the UCI's Medical Director, with logistical and personnel support from the Cycling Antidoping Foundation (CADF).

Like in Antidoping, avoiding a tramadol test will be treated as a positive test.

Dried blood droplets will be collected for presence of tramadol, using a high-precision analysis technique. Positive or negative results will depend on the presence or absence of the substance in the blood (there is no threshold). The analysis will be carried out in a reference laboratory, with the results sent to the UCI Medical Director within a maximum of 4-5 days.

Rider penalties

A first offence committed by a rider will be penalised with disqualification from the event. In addition, a fine of CHF5,000 will be imposed if the rider is a member of a UCI-registered team. In all other cases, the fine will be CHF1,000.

A second offence will result in disqualification from the event and a five-month suspension. If a further offence is committed, a nine-month suspension will be imposed.

Team penalties

If two riders belonging to the same UCI-registered team commit an offence within a period of 12 months, the team will be fined CHF10,000. If a further offence is committed within the same 12- month period, the team will be suspended for a period of 1 to 12 months, to be determined by the UCI Disciplinary Commission.

Erythropoietin - EPO Detection

Blood Doping

Donation of whole blood is not prohibited by the WADA rules. 

However, if an athlete donates whole blood they should ensure they keep a medical record from the blood bank confirming the date, type and volume of the donation.  This is particularly important if the athlete is in a drug testing pool and if their testing involves the athlete biological passport (ABP).

This is because evidence of blood loss (whether intentional as part of a blood doping regimen or through an accident, illness or blood donation) may result in changes to an athlete's haematological passport (ABP) and the athlete may be asked to explain these changes to anti-doping authorities.  A record of donation would assist the athlete in these circumstances.

All blood transfusions (received in or out of hospital) require a TUE. It does not need to be done before the treatment is performed if it is an emergency situation. In an emergency situation, appropriate treatment should be carried out first. A TUE should be applied for after the medical situation is stabilised/resolved (i.e. a retroactive TUE).

i) Donating Plasma: This process has some potential concerns under the WADA rules as the donation involves taking whole blood from the donor and then separating out the plasma from the red blood cells and returning the red blood cells (and usually some fluid) to the donor. In some donation centres a Plasmaphoresis machine is used which is a “closed circuit” (i.e. the blood is taken, the plasma extracted and the remaining blood is reinfused all in the one process and whilst connected to the donor).

Both the infusion of fluid and the re-infusion of red blood cells technically breaches the WADA code however this may be less of an issue with the closed circuit process. As with donating whole blood, there may be some changes to the haematological passport (ABP).

Athletes, who are part of a drug testing program, are therefore advised that the donation of plasma/platelets should be avoided whilst they are elite athletes (there is no difference whether the donation occurs in or out of a competition phase).

ii) Receiving Plasma: this process is usually required for serious medical conditions so it is rare for elite athletes to still be competing with such significant illnesses. However if they are, as only plasma is infused (i.e. no red blood cells) and usually it is done in a hospital setting then no TUE is required (if given outside a hospital and >100ml is given then a TUE would be required).

Iron is not prohibited by WADA but if the amount of fluid used to give the infusion is >100ml then a TUE required. If less than 100ml is used then no TUE is required.

Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE)

Athletes, like all people, may have illnesses or conditions that require them to take particular medications or undergo procedures. If the medication or method an athlete requires to treat an illness or condition happens to fall under the Prohibited List, a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) may give that athlete the authorization to take the needed medicine or method. TUEs are granted according the International Standard for TUEs (ISTUE), a document outlining the conditions, the stakeholder responsibilities and the TUE process.

The process for an athlete is fairly simple. Each athlete must:

  • Contact the relevant International Federations (IFs) or National Anti-Doping Organizations (NADOs) (whichever applies) and ask for information about the TUE Application process. Applications are usually submitted through the Anti-Doping Administration & Management System (ADAMS) or using a paper form.
  • Have the physician fill out and sign the TUE Application form and produce the required supporting documentation and forward it to the IF or NADO (whichever applies) for approval. Athletes should remember that the TUE Application should be submitted at least 30 days before participating in an event.

Tips on applying for a TUE:

  • Complete the form through ADAMS, either typed or handwritten in block capital letters. If the form is not legible, it is deemed incomplete and will be returned to the athlete.
  • If faxing the form, ensure that you include all the required documentation and keep a copy of the request as well as a record of the transmission or acknowledgement of receipt.
  • Ensure that your TUE application is complete with all the medical information, tests, laboratory results, imaging studies, clinical information to enable the TUEC to reach a decision in tune with WADA’s documents entitled “Medical Information to Support the Decisions of TUECs/TUE Physician Guidelines” available at here. Upload all of your medical information to support the use of the prohibited method or substance in ADAMS, under the Diagnosis information tab.
  • Always keep a copy of all your medical information, especially the initial diagnostic together with laboratory results, imaging studies and physicians’ notes.

The criteria are:

  • The athlete would experience significant health problems without taking the prohibited substance or method;
  • The therapeutic use of the substance would not produce significant enhancement of performance;
  • There is no reasonable therapeutic alternative to the use of the otherwise prohibited substance or method;
  • The requirement to use that substance or method is not due to the prior use of the substance or method without a TUE which was prohibited at the time of use.

For the TUE to be granted, all four criteria must be met.

All IFs, NADOs and Major Events Organizations (MEOs) must have a clear process in place whereby athletes with documented medical conditions can request a TUE, and have such request appropriately dealt with by a panel of independent physicians called a Therapeutic Use Exemption Committee (TUEC). They must publish details of that process by posting the information in a conspicuous place on their website. IFs and NADOs, through their TUECs, are then responsible for granting or declining such applications.

If you are an international level athlete or if you are entered in an international event for which a TUE issued by your IF is required, you must submit your TUE Application to your IF, which is responsible for accepting applications and granting TUEs.

It is possible that MEOs choose to recognize pre-existing TUEs automatically, but they must have a mechanism in place for athletes to obtain a new TUE should the need arise. Athletes competing in such events should have the ability to quickly and efficiently obtain that TUE before they compete.

Athletes must not submit TUE Applications to more than one organization.

If you are a national or lower level athlete, you must submit your TUE Application to your NADO. However, if the NADO considers that the athlete is below the national-level and therefore refuses to consider the application, the athlete should keep that correspondence and nevertheless collect all the medical information and be ready to present the documentation should there be a need.

Special protocols for TUE Applications may be in effect during Major Events. If you are entered in a Major Event, you are advised to inquire with your IF or NADO whether there is any variation in the TUE submission protocol for the Event. Major Events include those organized by international multi-sport organizations that function as the ruling body for any continental, regional, or other international event (e.g. International Olympic Committee, International Paralympic Committee).

If you already have a NADO TUE, it is not valid at the international level unless recognized by your governing IF or by a MEO (see more about recognition below).  If you already have a TUE from your NADO and are participating in an IF or international event, check if this IF or MEO automatically recognize your TUE as per ISTUE article 7.1(a).

Yes, but these TUEs are valid only for the duration of their event. A TUE granted by a NADO or an IF is not valid for the event unless it is recognized by the MEO, although it still is valid outside of that event.

WADA’s role in the TUE process is two-fold. First, the Agency, through its TUEC, has the right to monitor and review any TUE granted by a federation or anti-doping organization and, following such review, to reverse any decision. Second, an athlete who submits a TUE Application to a federation or anti-doping organization and is denied a TUE, can ask WADA to review the decision. In certain cases, WADA must review TUE decisions of IFs and it may review other TUE decisions. If WADA determines that the denial of the TUE did not comply with the ISTUE, the Agency can reverse the decision.

WADA does not accept TUE applications from athletes.

There are situations for which TUEs may be granted retroactively. The evaluation process is identical to the standard TUE application procedure i.e. the TUEC evaluates the application and issues its decision. The ISTUE stipulates which situations may result in the granting of a retroactive TUE, as follows:

  • Emergency treatment or treatment of an acute medical condition was necessary*; or
  • Due to other exceptional circumstances, there was insufficient time or opportunity for the athlete to submit, or the TUEC to consider, an application for the TUEprior to Sample collection; or
  • Applicable rules required the athlete or permitted the athlete to apply for a retroactive TUE.  This is applicable to Persons who are not International-Level or National-Level athletes (Code Article 4.4.5) and (where the relevant NADO so chooses) to National-Level Athletes in sports specified by the relevant NADO(ISTUE Article 5.1 Comment); or
    [Comment: Such athletes are strongly advised to have a medical file prepared and ready to demonstrate their satisfaction of the TUE conditions set out in ISTUE Article 4.1, should an application for a retroactive TUE be necessary following Sample collection.]
  • It is agreed, by WADA and by the ADO to whom the application for a retroactive TUE is or would be made, that fairness requires the grant of a retroactive TUE.

*A medical emergency or acute medical situation occurs when the athlete's  medical condition justifies immediate Administration of a Prohibited Substance or Method and failure to treat  immediately could significantly put the athlete’s health at risk. It is always preferable to address a TUE application prospectively rather than retrospectively. ADOs granting TUEs should have internal procedures to expedite the evaluation and granting of TUE for emergency situations, whenever possible, and without putting the athlete’s health at risk.

TUEs are granted for a specific method or a substance with a defined dosage and route of administration. They are also granted for a specific period of time and do expire. You need to comply with all the treatment conditions outlined in the TUE Application. Material changes to your treatment require a new application and TUE Committee review.

Once a TUE has been granted by an IF or NADO, it will inform WADA, who will then have the opportunity to review this decision. If the decision does not conform to the International Standard for TUEs, WADA may reverse it and deny the TUE. WADA's decision is not retroactive. Therefore, the reversal shall not apply retroactively and your results prior to such notification shall not be Disqualified. Where the TUE reversed was a retroactive TUE, however, the reversal shall also be retroactive.

The concept of recognition should apply as per the ISTUE’s article 7.0. You should not submit an application for a new TUE to the IF or MEO, but should consult their website to check whose TUE decisions they will automatically recognize. If your TUE falls into a category of TUEs that are automatically recognized in this way, you do not need to take further action. In the absence of such recognition, you should submit a request for recognition of the TUE to the IF or MEO either via ADAMS or as otherwise specified by that IF or MEO.

If an IF refuses to recognize a TUE granted by a NADO, the TUE is NOT valid for international-level competition. If you or your NADO appeals this decision to WADA within 21 days, the TUE remains valid for national-level competition pending WADA review. If the TUE is not referred to WADA, the TUE is not valid neither at the national nor international level after 21 days.

The TUE remains valid for international-level competition and out-of-competition testing, but if the NADO refers the matter to WADA, the TUE is not valid for national-level competition pending WADA review. If the TUE is not appealed to WADA within 21 days, the TUE becomes valid for national-level competition as well.

NADOs have the obligation to respect TUEs granted by other NADOs, as long as the granting NADO was competent to grant the TUE (i.e. the athlete is a National or lower level athlete) and the TUE was granted in accordance with the ISTUE.

You or your granting authority may appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) for a final decision.

When filling out the doping control form, make sure that you declare the substance or method being used and that you specify that a TUE has been granted. Although not mandatory, you are strongly encouraged to show your TUE Approval certificate to the doping control official.

When the doping control authority receives the report from the laboratory, an initial evaluation will take place to verify that the TUE is still in effect and that the results of the analysis are consistent with the TUE granted (nature of substance, route of administration, dose, time frame of administration, etc.). If the review is satisfactory, the result of your test will be recorded as negative.

If your TUE is denied by your IF, WADA must review the TUE decisions as per article 8.1 of the ISTUE. It may review any other decisions.

The review process is as follows:

  1. The request for review must be sent via registered letter to WADA’s Medical Director within 21 days of the decision by the TUE granting authority.  Include your full contact details as well as your e-mail address.  WADA will inform you whether or not your case can be reviewed by WADA’s Therapeutic Use Exemption Committee (TUEC), as per article 8.0 of the ISTUE;
  2. If your case is accepted, you will be asked to pay WADA an administrative fee of US$500 and further information will be provided regarding  the payment of this fee;
  3. WADA’s TUEC will review the same documentation as the TUE granting authority. WADA may ask you to provide additional information or documents;
  4. WADA’s TUEC will render its decision in a reasonable time, given the circumstances of the case;
  5. The original denial of the TUE will remain in effect until WADA’s TUEC reaches a decision. You are therefore not permitted to use the substance while waiting for the decision from WADA’s TUEC.  If the TUE is granted by WADA’s TUEC, the TUE immediately goes into effect in accordance with the conditions outlined by WADA’s TUEC.
  6. WADA’s TUEC’s decision may be appealed to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS).

WADA reserves the right not to review your case for various reasons.  In that event, you may always reapply to your NADO to have a new TUE application considered, especially if there is new compelling medical information presented.

For athletes applying to an International Federation:
You may appeal the IF decision to CAS for a final decision.

For athletes applying to a National Anti-Doping Organization:
You may appeal the NADO decision to an independent appeal body in your country. If this body grants the TUE, WADA could appeal this decision to CAS for a final decision.

WADA TUE review decisions can be appealed to CAS. If WADA upholds the IF decision, the athlete and/or the NADO can appeal to CAS. If the IF decision is reversed by WADA, the IF may appeal to CAS. If an international-level athlete does not have a TUE, he should apply to his IF. If the IF denies the TUE, WADA may agree to review the decision not to grant the TUE. If WADA refuses to review the decision, the athlete may appeal to CAS.

All the information contained in a TUE Application will be kept strictly confidential, the same as any medical information normally kept by your doctor. All members of the Therapeutic Use Exemption Committee (TUECs) are required to sign confidentiality agreements and if they require advice from other scientific experts on a particular case, your name is not used when circulating the application outside the TUEC.

Nebulizers are not prohibited as a device; however the amount of beta-2-agonist administered by nebulisation may surpass the allowed maximum doses of salbutamol, salmeterol or formoterol by inhalation; therefore the dose may be prohibited.

The procedures for applying for and granting a TUE are outlined in the International Standard for TUEs, published by WADA. You may also contact your IF or NADO for more information. You may also consult the below-described TUE Guidelines, also published by WADA.

WADA produces a series of useful guidelines entitled Medical Information to Support the Decisions of TUECs/TUE Physician Guidelines that address common health conditions confronted by athletes (e.g. asthma, joint and muscle disease and injury etc.) in the context of TUEs. These documents are intended to inform NADO and IF TUEC Physicians, but also provide useful information to help athletes and their doctors to know what diagnostic criteria and tests must be included in their TUE application.

Your health is the most important consideration.

Emergency treatment should be carried out, as medically appropriate, and considerations of the need for a TUE can be dealt with after the medical issue is stabilised. There is a category of TUEs for these situations called “retroactive” where the application is made after the treatment has been given.

Examples of Emergency treatments that involve WADA prohibited substances

Pain relief medications – Narcotics (e.g. morphine, pethidine, fentanyl) are on the WADA Prohibited List. They are only prohibited DURING competition. The clearance of these drugs from the body is relatively rapid but they can remain in the system for a few days.  A TUE is therefore required if the athlete is competing within 5 days of taking this medication.

Prednisolone, hydrocortisone – May be given to treat severe allergy, anaphylaxis, asthma and other inflammatory conditions. When given systemically (i.e. Intravenous, intramuscularly, orally) these medications are WADA prohibited but only DURING competition. The clearance of these medications from the body is usually fairly rapid but can be variable and will remain in the system for a few days. A TUE is therefore required if the athlete is competing within 5 days of taking this medication.

Adrenaline – may be given for anaphylaxis and an epipen may be given to take home for any future events. It is WADA prohibited DURING competition. These substances both require a TUE if used within 5 days of competition. If an athlete needs to carry an epipen a TUE is required at all times.

Intra-venous (IV) fluids – no TUE is required, regardless of the volume, if the IV fluid is given while the athlete is in hospital, either the ward, emergency department, in surgery or en route to hospital in an ambulance. If it is given at a doctor’s rooms or any place other than those listed above and the volume is >100ml then a TUE is required.

Blood transfusions - Any transfusion of blood, in or out of hospital requires a TUE.

Ventolin (Salbutamol) - during an acute asthma attack you may be given salbutamol via an inhaler (and possibly a spacer) or nebuliser. Inhaled salbutamol is permitted by WADA but only up to 8 “puffs” in a 12 hour period. Salbutamol via a nebuliser will exceed this threshold so a retroactive TUE should be applied for if a nebuliser or more than 8 puffs in 12 hours are given.

There are a number of possible medications given during and after surgery that may need a TUE. Always check any medication you are given on the WADA prohibited List.

Anaesthetic medications –narcotics (e.g. pethidine, morphine, fentanyl) are WADA prohibited but only DURING competition. As the clearance of these drugs from the body is rapid there is no need for a TUE unless the athlete competes within 5 days of receiving these drugs.

IV fluids- are usually given during surgery and the WADA rules state that NO TUE is required for IV fluids given whilst in hospital.

Post-Operative/take home medication – There may be prescribed medication to take home after surgery. This is usually pain relief and some of these may be narcotics in tablet form (e.g. endone or oxycodone) which are prohibited DURING competition. This means a TUE is required if the athlete takes these medications within 5 days of competition.


The Anti-Doping Administration & Management System - ADAMS

Whereabouts are information provided by a limited number of top elite athletes about their location to the International Sport Federation (IF) or National Anti-Doping Organization (NADO) that included them in their respective registered testing pool as part of these top elite athletes’ anti-doping responsibilities.

Because out-of-competition doping controls can be conducted without notice to athletes, they are one of the most powerful means of deterrence and detection of doping and are an important step in strengthening athlete and public confidence in doping-free sport. Accurate whereabouts information is crucial to ensure efficiency of the anti-doping programs, which are designed to protect the integrity of sport and to protect clean athletes.

The concept of out-of-competition is not new. Experience has shown that out-of-competition testing is crucial to the fight against doping, in particular because a number of prohibited substances and methods are detectable only for a limited period of time in an athlete’s body while maintaining a performance-enhancing effect. The only way to perform such testing is by knowing where athletes are, and the only way to make it efficient is to be able to test athletes at times at which cheaters may be most likely to use prohibited substances and methods.

Whereabouts rules are part of the International Standard for Testing and Investigations (ISTI). The ISTI is mandatory for Anti-Doping Organizations (ADOs, including IFs, NADOs, Major Games Organizers, etc.) that have adopted the World Anti-Doping Code (the document harmonizing anti-doping rules in all sports).


Whereabouts requirements are for the limited number of top-level athletes who are in the registered testing pool of either their IF or NADO. They were designed to give those top-level athletes a flexible tool to show their commitment to doping-free sport, as well as appropriate, sufficient and effective privacy protection.

WADA is not responsible for deciding who should be part of these registered testing pools. IFs are afforded discretion as to who should be subject to these provisions internationally, and NADOs are afforded discretion to create a registered testing pool at the national level. It is WADA’s recommendation that registered testing pools be of proportionate and manageable size and focus on top international and national elite athletes.

Athletes can have their agent or another representative submit their whereabouts information if they wish to. In team sports, whereabouts information can be submitted by team officials on a collective basis as part of the team’s activities.

However, athletes are ultimately responsible for their whereabouts. As a result, they cannot avoid responsibility by blaming their representative or the team for filing inaccurate information about their whereabouts or for not updating their whereabouts if they were not at the location specified by them during the 60-minute time-slot.


Whereabouts requirements are a practical tool to help ADOs conduct effective out-of-competition testing. Irrelevant of whether they have been selected to be part of a registered testing pool, athletes can still be tested out-of-competition by their IF, their NADO or other ADOs.

Athlete Biological Passport

The fundamental principle of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is to monitor selected variables (`biomarkers of doping´) over time that indirectly reveal the effect of doping, as opposed to the traditional direct detection of doping by analytical doping controls.

The ABP is currently composed of two modules:

  The Haematological Module, introduced in December 2009, aims to identify enhancement of oxygen transport, including use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and any form of blood transfusion or manipulation.

The Steroidal Module, introduced on January 1st, 2014, aims to identify endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAAS) when administered exogenously (i.e. not created by the human body) and other anabolic agents, such as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMS).

The Haematological Module considers a panel of biomarkers of blood doping that are measured in an athlete’s blood sample. The Steroidal Module considers a panel of biomarkers of steroid doping measured in an athlete’s urine sample.

The objective of integrating the ABP into the larger framework of a robust anti-doping program is twofold:

1) To identify and target athletes for specific analytical testing by intelligent and timely interpretation of passport data;

  For the Haematological Module, this includes Erytrhopoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs) and homologous blood transfusion (HBT) tests;

For the Steroidal Module, this includes Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) to detect endogenous steroids administered exogenously.

2) To pursue possible anti-doping rule violations (ADRVs) in accordance with Article 2.2 (Use or attempted use by an athlete of a prohibited substance or a prohibited method) of the World Anti-Doping Code (Code).

WADA is engaged with experts and stakeholders to further develop the ABP and is working on an endocrine module which aims to detect the abuse of growth factors such as growth hormone.  The long-term goal of the ABP is the development of a large panel of biomarkers of doping in taking advantage of recent advances in analytical chemistry and a better understanding of systems biology through ‘omics’ fields such as proteomics and metabolomics.

No.  The fight against doping relies on several strategies, including the direct testing of athletes as well as evidence gathered in the context of non-analytical anti-doping rule violations. By combining these strategies, and seeking new ones to address emerging threats, the global fight against doping is more effective.

The typical doping control approach based on the detection of prohibited substance or their metabolites in an athlete’s sample is an effective approach; however it has limitations when an athlete may be using substances on an intermittent and/or low-dose basis. Furthermore, new substances or modifications of prohibited substances (e.g. designer drugs) may be difficult to detect by conventional analytical means. In recent years, doping regimes have become much more scientifically planned and have taken advantage of the weaknesses in traditional protocols. The ABP complements the traditional anti-doping testing approach to enhance the cost-efficiency of anti-doping programs.

WADA’s ABP Guidelines foster consistency and uniformity in application, without mandating specific administrative or procedural elements. Each Anti-Doping Organization remains free to implement the recommended processes suggested in the Guidelines to reflect its own resources and context.

Nevertheless, a series of mandatory protocols related to sample collection, analysis and legal considerations must be rigorously followed to ensure both legal fortitude, scientific certainty, and to support mutual recognition and sharing of data between organizations. These mandatory protocols are given in the Appendices of the Guidelines. Only programs that fully adhere to these protocols and fully utilize ADAMS can be considered official ABP programs rather than general ‘profiling’ programs.

No.  An assessment of the physiological risks of sports and their disciplines should be carried out in order to ascertain which module(s) may be applicable. 

The Haematological Module evaluates red blood cell variables. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the cells, and therefore blood manipulation is likely in sports where endurance is advantageous to athletes (e.g. use of erythrocyte stimulating agents or blood transfusions).  However, the advantage of improving oxygen carrying capacity extends to sports that are not typically endurance events, but nevertheless have a large aerobic component. For the Haematological Module, athletes must be identified by the ADOs as being part of the ABP program, as there are specific blood tests that must be obtained.

The Steroidal Module refers to Anabolic Androgenic Steroids, which may be particularly abused by athletes in sports requiring strength and power. These substances may also increase the production of red blood cells and affect recovery. Therefore, they may also be used by endurance athletes. 

All urine samples are automatically analyzed for the Steroidal Module, “steroid profile”, which means that any athlete who has been tested is essentially part of a Passport program. As soon as an athlete has more than one urine sample analyzed, a longitudinal steroid profile will be established in ADAMS.

No. All urine samples are analyzed for the Steroidal Module, “steroid profile” with results reported in ADAMS by the WADA accredited laboratories, regardless whether a blood sample was collected at the same time on the athlete or more generally whether the ADO implemented the Haematological Module.

The Steroidal Module is automatically applied, i.e. ordinary urine tests is part of the Steroidal Module. The ADO may decide that the Haematological Module is not a necessary part of their overall anti-doping strategy and need not be implemented.

An APMU is composed of persons designated by the ADO to administer an ABP. The Unit, ideally a WADA accredited laboratory-associated APMU, is responsible for the administrative management of Athlete Passports, advising the ADO on intelligent target testing, liaising with the Expert Panel, compiling and authorizing an ABP Documentation Package and reporting Adverse Passport Findings.

Larger ADOs may in some situations operate an in-house APMU. Otherwise it is advisable for the ADOs to contract an APMU associated with a WADA accredited laboratory.  The APMU may or may not operate both Haematological and Steroidal Modules. If the ADO is not running the Haematological Module, then only a steroidal APMU needs to be contracted or integrated into existing administrative processes.

If for some reason the ADO has not already engaged an APMU, and a steroidal Atypical Passport Finding (ATPF) is reported with a negative or inconclusive IRMS, then the responsible ADO should seek further guidance from the laboratory that performed the test. (More information can be found in the Q&A on the ABP Steroidal Module in the menu on the left.)

WADA encourages ADOs to establish a relationship with a WADA accredited laboratory-associated APMU, given that this is where the expertise required for data interpretation is most accessible. Some larger ADOs may have the appropriate scientific, analytical and medical expertise available to operate an APMU ‘in-house.’  It is possible that some ADOs who do not run a Haematological ABP program and where the risk of steroid doping is very low, decide to manage Atypical Passport Findings (ATPF) as they arise.

Please consult the list of APMUs associated with WADA accredited laboratories.

Not necessarily. WADA encourages ADOs to contract Athlete Passport Management Unit (APMU) that already have experts associated with them; however ADOs may choose to retain their own experts should they wish.

WADA's role in Result Management

WADA’s duty is to monitor anti-doping activities worldwide to ensure proper implementation of and compliance with the World Anti-Doping Code (Code), the document harmonizing anti-doping rules in all sports and all countries, by International Sports Federations (IFs) and National Anti-Doping Organizations (NADOs).

WADA’s role is therefore at a very high level.

No. WADA is never involved in the individual results management of adverse analytical findings. (An adverse analytical finding is the result of the analysis of a doping control sample that shows the presence of a prohibited substance or method.)

That is the responsibility of the NADO and/or Sports Federation involved in the particular case.

For every adverse analytical finding, WADA receives a certificate of analysis from the WADA accredited laboratory. These certificates of analysis do not include the name of the athlete involved, since all samples analyzed by laboratories are anonymized and identified only by a code number.

Laboratory notifications help WADA follow up with the Anti-Doping Organization (ADO) involved to ensure that its result management of the case properly follows the established rules and processes and is in compliance with the World Anti-Doping Code.

The procedures for results management vary slightly among ADOs (within the framework of articles 7 and 8 of the Code), including when to notify WADA of doping cases and sanctions as well as when and how to make public disclosure of anti-doping rule violations.

The Code (Art. 14.1) specifies that “(…) The athlete’s National Anti-Doping Organization and International Federation and WADA shall also be notified not later than the completion of the process described inArticles 7.1 (Initial Review Regarding Adverse Analytical Findings) through 7.4 (Review of other anti-doping rule violations).

Notification shall include: the athlete’s name, country, sport and discipline within the sport, the athlete's competitive level, whether the test was in-competition or out-of-competition, the date of sample collection and the analytical result reported by the laboratory. The same persons and Anti-Doping Organizations shall be regularly updated on the status and findings of any review (…)”

WADA is not involved in the disciplinary process until after the results management and sanctioning of the athlete are completed by the NADO/IF. This includes any internal appeal or review of a national decision by its IF.

WADA’s role is to assess the sanctioning process followed by the relevant ADO following the completion of the process. Should WADA have any concerns about the process or the result, WADA may exercise its right of appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS). WADA has a right of appeal to CAS for cases under the jurisdiction of organizations that have implemented the Code.

No. It is not part of WADA’s responsibilities or mission to announce the adverse analytical findings of athletes; that is the role of the organization in charge of results management of a particular doping case. WADA does not even know the name of the athlete involved until such information is communicated by the ADO in charge of results management, or publicly announced by the athlete or his/her entourage.

The Code (Art. 14.2) states that “(…) No later than twenty days after it has been determined in a hearing that an anti-doping rule violation has occurred, or such hearing has been waived, or the assertion of an anti-doping rule violation has not been timely challenged, the Anti-Doping Organization responsible for results management must publicly report the disposition of the anti-doping matter.”

Once the relevant ADO has completed its adjudication of a particular doping case, WADA reviews the decision and, if the Agency is of a view that the decision might not comply with the World Anti-Doping Code, the Agency considers whether to exercise its right of appeal to CAS.

Official Sponsors
Official Supporters
Official Supplier
Official Supporters
Federal Lottery Resources